Several Notes on the Pose of Female Hachiman-Deity:
– From the Case of Two Figures of Itanami-Hachiman Shrine in Iwataki-cho，Kyoto長坂一郎
- Itanami- Hachiman Shrine in Iwataki-cho，Kyoto，
has two seated figures of fema1e deity，which are
thought to have been made originally as attendant
statues of Hachiman- Trinity. Both figures，probab1y
made in the late 10th century，are identical in their
postures of arms-and-hands: the each left arm in
front of stomach with its hand in the right upper
arm，whose forearm is lifted up before the breast.
My assumption on this rare posture is that: It
had derived from the former pose of the figure，i. e.，
sitting with one leg properly folded under one but
the other drawn up; The sculptor probaly changed
the pose mentioned above to one as being seen now，
i. e.，sitting straight on her seat;and being supposed
to be symmetrical as attendants in the trinity
the two figures are made identical in their poses.
From this point of view，there might be two patterns
of arms-and-hands: one left arm being put on
the drawn up knee，the other the same left arm lifted
without aid by that knee.
A retrospective scrutiny of the formative process
of that trinity tells us a little on this problem，too.
In the first phase，there was，I suppose，only one
single image of deity，but one female figure was
added (the second phase)，and one more fema1e (the
third phase). The pose of figure with its knee drawn
up，presumed above，might be thought to be in the
second phase，in which no counter-part to be symmetrical
But there have been another account of the pose
of the trinity that it derived from the Hachiman-
Sansho-Zuei (three landscapes of Hachiman-
Shrine)，now in Ninnaji-Temp1e. In this picure，the
female deity sits straight on her seat. This pose had
been traditional in Japan，but was inhibited in the
Ritsu-Ryo-Sei，newly-established political system
based on various legal codes，except in the case in
front of the Emperor both in China and in Japan.
The logical conclusion is that the pose of the female
deity is that of preying in front of the Ten-no
(The Japanese Emperor).In other words，the two
female figures in Itanami-Hachiman Shrine besed
its style on the buddhist trinity tradition，but was
transformed its detail (especially the posture of
arms-and-hands) and meaning in the context of Jin-
Gi-Sei，apoliticals ystem in which the Emperor is
ranked higher than the Deity.